The Power of Central Banks

In Europe, the transformation in the sovereign debt market since Mario Draghi’s “whatever it takes” promise in July 2012 has been remarkable.  Ireland, which just exited an IMF bailout program in December, can now issue 5-year debt at yields well below 5-year Treasuries.

PIMCO Secular Outlook, May 2014 – The New Neutral

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Put all Maven dependency versions in properties

Because security vulnerabilities in third-party software are so common, it is important to manage the versions of your dependencies and to be prepared to upgrade them quickly. For Maven projects, I recommend putting the versions of all your dependencies in the properties section of your pom.xml. Furthermore, for libraries which require multiple dependency entries in pom.xml, this allows you to ensure you use the same version for all of those dependencies.

For example:

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <properties>
    <spring.version>3.2.6.RELEASE</spring.version>
    <jackson.version>2.2.3</jackson.version>
  </properties>
  <dependencies>
    <!-- spring -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-core</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-beans</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- Jackson -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
      <artifactId>jackson-core</artifactId>
      <version>${jackson.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
      <artifactId>jackson-annotations</artifactId>
      <version>${jackson.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
      <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
      <version>${jackson.version}</version>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>
</project>

Publishing a Java Servlet to Azure Website Using Maven

Azurelogo

This blog post shows how to publish a Java Servlet, encapsulated in a WAR file, to an Azure Web Site using FTP via Maven.

The first step will be to generate a simple servlet using Maven:

mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId=com.example -DartifactId=hello-world -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-webapp

This creates a simple, Hello World application in the hello-world directory. We can verify it works by running it in a local servlet container using the instructions found in Supporting mvn jetty:run in Maven applications. Add the Jetty maven plugin to pom.xml under the build section:

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
  <build>
    <plugins>
      <plugin>
        <groupId>org.eclipse.jetty</groupId>
        <artifactId>jetty-maven-plugin</artifactId>
        <version>9.2.0.M0</version>
      </plugin>
    </plugins>
  </build>
</project>

You can now run the application in Jetty using mvn jetty:run and visit http://localhost:8080 to ensure it works. Next, you can use mvn package to generate the WAR file target/hello-world.war.

Now let’s switch to the Microsoft Azure Portal to create a Web Site and configure it to run Java applications:

  1. Click New: Website.
  2. Give the website a name (I’ll use hello-world) and then click Create.
  3. Open the website and click Site settings (in the lower left-hand corner).
  4. For Java version, change the setting from OFF to 1.7.0_51.
  5. In Web Container, choose your preferred servlet container (I use Tomcat).
  6. Click Save.

Your Java website is now running at http://hello-world.azurewebsites.net. You can upload WAR files via FTP to the directory /site/wwwroot/webapps and they will become available as part of your site.

Next, set up your website for deployment:

  1. Open the website in the Azure Portal.
  2. Click Set deployment credentials.
  3. Create a deployment username (I’ll use deployme) and password and click Save. Write down the username and password
  4. Click Properties
  5. Write down the FTP host name. Mine is ftp://waws-prod-blu-011.ftp.azurewebsites.windows.net. Also note that the FTP/Deployment User has a hello-world prefix (i.e. it is hello-world\deployme)

We’ll now configure Maven to deploy the website by uploading the WAR file when the user uses mvn install.

  1. Set up the deployment username and password for Maven by editing ~/.m2/settings.xml and add the following section:
    <settings xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0"
              xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
              xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/SETTINGS/1.0.0                               http://maven.apache.org/xsd/settings-1.0.0.xsd">
      <servers>
        <server>
          <id>azure-hello-world</id>
          <username>hello-world\deployme</username>
          <password>password</password>
        </server>
      </servers>
    </settings>
    
  2. Add wagon-ftp as a build extension to your pom.xml so we can upload files via FTP:
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
      <build>
        <extensions>
          <extension>
            <groupId>org.apache.maven.wagon</groupId>
            <artifactId>wagon-ftp</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-beta-3</version>
          </extension>
        </extensions>
      </build>
    </project>
    
  3. Add wagon-maven-plugin as a build plugin in your pom.xml and instruct it to upload the WAR via FTP when the user runs mvn install:
    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
             xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
             xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
      <build>
        <plugins>
          <plugin>
            <groupId>org.codehaus.mojo</groupId>
            <artifactId>wagon-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            <version>1.0-beta-3</version>
            <executions>
              <execution>
                <id>upload-war</id>
                <phase>install</phase>
                <goals>
                  <goal>upload</goal>
                </goals>
                <configuration>
                  <fromDir>${basedir}/target</fromDir>
                  <includes>${project.build.finalName}.war</includes>
                  <url>ftp://waws-prod-blu-011.ftp.azurewebsites.windows.net</url>
                  <toDir>/site/wwwroot/webapps</toDir>
                  <serverId>azure-hello-world</serverId>
                </configuration>
              </execution>
            </executions>
          </plugin>
        </plugins>
      </build>
    </project>
    

You can now deploy your website using mvn install, and visit it at http://hello-world.azurewebsites.net/hello-world.